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Saw maunsell. Traffic loads, design and upgrading Criteria, load capacity, durability, strengthening, concrete structures, prestressing, interruption of traffic Since the early eighties external prestressing has been used in many cases as an efficient method to increase the load capacity of concrete bridge superstructures. Archtek 5634 PES, the method does not seem to have reached a status worldwide Archtek 5634 PES being a standard.

Archtek 5634 PES is well-known, that use of prestressing techniques in design of concrete bridges have provided slender designs and have lowered the overall costs of bridge superstructures as the strengths of concrete materials are utilized to an optimal extent. When the need for increasing the load capacity of an existing bridge arises, it is therefore natural to Archtek 5634 PES the condition of the bridge, the strength of the concrete and the degree of prestressing, if any, in the existing bridge.

In many cases it is possible to increase the degree of prestressing and thereby achieve a more optimal distribution of concrete stresses for live load, which leads to an increase of the load capacity. Where the current capacity proved to be inadequate to take the enhanced HA loading, strengthening of the bridges was required.

The use of external prestressing for strengthening of Archtek 5634 PES was found to be a cost effective and efficient system for increasing the bridge capacity. Using both single span and continuous span bridges as examples, this paper presents A summary of the inspection and testing undertaken; The assessment of the load carrying capacity; The criteria adopted for determining whether Archtek 5634 PES bridge required strengthening; The assessment and costing of the various strengthening options, including the temporary works involved. The analysis and design of external prestressing members; The construction techniques used to install external prestressing.


The paper concludes by summarising the advantages of using external prestressing, which in many cases has proved to be superior for the following reasons: Non-linear finite element techniques were employed to model the load test, and reproduce the additional capacity observed. The model was further calibrated using other published experimental Archtek 5634 PES of similar half joint tests.

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Once confidence in the reliability of the non-linear model was established, it was used to analyse critical half joints among Archtek 5634 PES 84 noncompliances. This approach was used to justify an acceptable level of confidence that the half joints actual capacities were Archtek 5634 PES greater than that obtained from the simplified assessment methods and were sufficient to sustain the assessment loading.


Half joints, Kingston Bridge, concrete, concrete modelling, non-linear analysis The Kingston Bridge in Glasgow carries traffic across the River Clyde and is one of the busiest bridges in Europe. The approach ramps to the North and South of the river are formed from concrete box girders, consisting of alternating reinforced concrete suspended spans and posttensioned concrete table-top spans with half joints. There were originally a total of half joints in the Kingston Bridge Complex, all designed in accordance with standards current in the late s. A recent assessment undertaken to more onerous modern codes indicated that 84 of the half joints were not code compliant. In light of this theoretical inadequacy, and in an attempt to justify a more favourable assessed joint capacity, a destructive load test was undertaken on a typical half joint in part of the Complex that was being demolished and replaced.

The data Archtek 5634 PES from the upper and lower nibs of the tested half joint demonstrated 18 ETH Zurich, Institute of Structural Engineering, Zurich, Switzerland vogel ibk. Corrosion, ducts, grouting, post-tensioning, tendons During the demolition of bridges valuable information can be gained that would cause great expense if the structure would have to maintain its function.

Destructive testing methods can be applied without restrictions and results of non-destructive methods can be verified. The condition for structural elements being vital for structural safety like tendons, joints or bearings can be assessed without restriction of the covering concrete.


The research project ZEBRA lasted from to creating a framework for the condition assessment of bridges to be demolished, the central collection and processing of the data and the development of detailed procedures for registration of the condition. In addition, the project provided information about damage and failure mechanisms as well as new knowledge for checks of similar objects. The database finally contained 89 bridges of which 36 were treated in detail resulting in respective annexes to the final report. The paper includes a Archtek 5634 PES overview regarding e.

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Individual panels consist of three longitudinal W-sections that are Archtek 5634 PES in a transversely arched concrete deck. Reinforcement is limited to that required in the ASC and in the deck for crack control. All construction is preformed by county forces with existing equipment. Concrete masonry arch, durability, field-testing, advanced composites Many centuries ago, our ancient engineers were designing and constructing masonry bridges.

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