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The publisher's H&b DR-900 edited version of this article is available free at Int J Cancer Abstract Alcohol intake has been related to an increased risk of breast cancer BC while dietary fiber intake has been inversely associated to BC risk. A beneficial effect of fibers on ethanol carcinogenesis through their H&b DR-900 on estrogen levels is still controversial.
We investigated the role of dietary fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and breast cancer H&b DR-900 data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC. This study includedwomen aged years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for H&b DR-900 Information on fiber and alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were calculated from country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires.
Hazard ratios HR of developing invasive H&b DR-900 cancer according to different levels of alcohol and fiber intake were computed. During 3, person-years, 11, incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. H&b DR-900 modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC.
Introduction A consistent association has been observed between alcohol intake and breast cancer BC among pre- and postmenopausal women 1. While it is widely accepted that dietary fiber intake inversely correlates to BC risk, 3 a beneficial effect on ethanol carcinogenesis through their impact on estrogen levels, 4 is still controversial 5. It is therefore important to evaluate the association of alcohol intake and BC phenotypes and the potential modulating role of fiber intake. EPIC recruited a total ofwomen, aged years who gave informed consent and completed questionnaires H&b DR-900 diet, lifestyle, and medical history 6.
Only first primary BC cases were retained in the analysis non-primary BCs excluded.
Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer
Dietary assessment and alcohol intake For the present study, intake of alcoholic beverages at baseline was calculated from dietary questionnaires which have been previously validated for alcohol intake 67. In each country, intake was calculated based on the estimated average glass volume and ethanol content for each type of alcoholic beverage, H&b DR-900 information collected in highly standardized hr dietary recalls from a subset of the cohort 89.
Estimation of dietary fiber intake has been described previously In brief, dietary fiber was defined by the AOAC Association of Official Agricultural H&b DR-900 gravimetric method for Total Dietary Fiber, 11 and includes soluble and insoluble forms including lignin of non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch 10 The dietary fiber variable used in this work was obtained using the EPIC Nutrient Data Base ENDB in which the dietary fiber composition of foods was harmonized across the participating European countries to take into account the H&b DR-900 analytical methods used Anthropometric measurements Weight and height were measured at baseline, while the subjects were not wearing shoes, to the nearest 0.
In France, Norway, and Oxford, height and weight were self-reported on a questionnaire.
The procedures used to account for procedural differences between centers in the collection of anthropometric measurements, are described elsewhere 14 Outcome assessment Incident BC cases were identified through population cancer H&b DR-900 Denmark, Italy all centers but Naplesthe Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom or by a combination of methods including health insurance records, cancer and pathology registries and active follow-up France, Germany, Naples and Greece. Subjects were followed up from study entry and until cancer diagnosis except for non-melanoma skin cancer casesdeath, emigration or until the end of the follow-up period varying from and depending on the centerwhichever occurred first.
Menopausal status was determined as previously reported in the EPIC study. Statistical analysis Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between alcohol intake and the risk of BC.
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Age was the primary time variable, and the Breslow method was adopted for handling ties Analyses were conducted for all women as well as by receptors status. Systematic adjustments were made for menopausal status, weight, height, smoking status never, former, smoker and unknowneducation, physical activity and energy intake from non-alcohol sources. In addition, the following variables were included in the models: Analyses were stratified by study center to control for differences in questionnaires, follow-up procedures and other center-specific effects. To further control for the possible confounding effect of age, models were stratified by age H&b DR-900 recruitment in 1-year categories Dietary fiber intake was modelled as continuous and categorical low, medium and high intake according to distribution H&b DR-900 the controls for total fiber intake as well as for fiber sources vegetables, fruits and cereals.
The statistical significance of interactions was assessed using likelihood ratio tests based on the models with and without the interaction terms formed by the product of dietary H&b DR-900 intake continuous and the value of alcohol intake at recruitment as well as averaged lifetime intake continuous. Similar analyses were carried out according to estrogen receptor H&b DR-900. For all models, the proportional hazards assumption was satisfied, and was evaluated via inclusion into the disease model of interaction terms between exposure and attained age data not shown.
All analyses were performed using SAS version 9. Results During an average of The mean age at recruitment was Among them the distribution was as follows: Table 1 presents the amount of fiber intake and mean intake of alcohol according to tertiles of fiber intake for total fiber, fiber from vegetables, fruits and cereals. The mean alcohol intake in the first H&b DR-900 lowest of total fiber intake was 8. Regarding specific types of fiber intake, the mean alcohol intake was 8.
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No significant difference in alcohol intake was observed among tertiles of fiber from vegetables or cereals. Table 1 Levels of fiber and alcohol intakes by tertiles of total fiber and fiber from different sources Tertiles of total fibers Tertiles of fibers from vegetables Tertiles of fibers from fruits Tertiles of fibers from cereals Total fibers 1. Review and Buy H&B - DR at H&b DR-900 best price and offers in Dubai - UAE at Shop DVD and Blu-ray Players Online From H&B. Use this EPA compliance page to download and identify the right Hach method for your application.
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